Website Credits


With some exceptions, the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science does not hold the copyright to the images, objects, photos, multimedia sequences, or illustrations used on this website.
The owner and copyright holder of each item in the virtual exhibition is indicated.

Items whose owner is not indicated, are presumed to be in the public domain and it is assumed they can be legally used on a website without difficulties.

No part of this website may be used for publication or for commercial purposes without explicit and written permission by the owners. Please contact the owner directly or ask the library of the MPIHS for a contact address.

When using items that are presumed to in the public domain, we cannot guarantee that there will be no copyright problems:
If you believe that you own the rights to any of the images we use, please contact the library of the MPIHS so that we can add an acknowledgement or withdraw the item.


This website was created with Virtual Spaces 2008, an application developed at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science. For more information about Virtual Spaces see

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